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知識寶典:報時問錶 Repeater 的簡史
報時問錶 (Repeater) 堪稱是鐘錶製品中最精緻複雜的藝術品,它必須透過眾多微小機件精密無比的協調運作才能發出響聲報時。儘管如此,報時問錶的外觀卻可能相當樸實無奇、毫不奢華,只有對腕錶有一定概念的人可以從錶殼邊緣的按鈕 push piece或撥動滑簧 slide bolt 分辨出它與眾不同的內涵和身價。一只報時問錶少則數百萬台幣、高則數千萬的身價固然構成一般錶迷一生難以企望的夢想,讓人望之生畏,但關於各式各樣問錶的種類名稱和專有名詞,更常讓錶迷頗有丈二金剛摸不著頭腦的疑難。舉例來說,你知道 en passant 這個詞的意思嗎?又,clockwatch 到底是 watch 還是 clock?在探討這些這些文字遊戲之前,還是先來談一談問錶發展的歷程吧。

問錶的起源

腕錶的歷史根源於時鐘,這一點無庸置疑。也因此,自有懷錶與手錶的設計以來,製錶大師們就一直不能忘情於製作一只可以以聲音報時的所謂問錶,然而他們必須先發明極其精良的技術,解決在報時按鍵不全然運作時能避免誤鳴的問題,才能創作出真正有實用價值的問錶系統。當然真實問錶的發展歷程至今已經模糊不清,但必然是落後了自鳴鐘 Striking Clock 多年之後了。1530 年德國紐倫堡鎖匠 Peter Henlein 製造出世界上第一指我們今日稱為「紐倫堡鐵蛋」的第一只懷錶之後不久,一些可攜帶式時鐘 Carriage Clock 就以發展出自動報時 Hour-Striking 的性能。More....


點擊可觀看放大原圖

Daniel Quare 的 古董 Quarter Repeater 懷錶


Edward Barlow 和 Daniel Quare

而根據現存歷史的記載,報時懷錶最早應該是出現在 1680 年代。1676 年,英國鐘錶大師 Edward Barlow (1636-1716) 展示了他所發明了的、可裝置在鐘內的齒輪框打簧機制 Rack Striking Mechanism,這個機制直到今日仍被使用在一些現代的問錶之中。Barlow 在1686 年製作出一個可以報時報刻的兩問懷錶,並提出專利申請。不過英國鐘錶工會以另一位英國製錶師 Daniel Quare (1649-1724) 早在多年前即以發明此一機制為由,希望英國國王 King James II 不要核發此一專利。

為了解決此一爭議,英國國王 King James II命令兩人各自製作自己的問錶來比較。Edward Barlow 的問錶分開以兩個按鈕來報時和報刻,但 Daniel Quare 的問錶僅以靠近吊柄處的單一按鈕即可報時報刻,英王因此將專利判給了 Daniel Quare。Daniel Quare 對問錶機制還有另一個貢獻,他發明了一種「全然與不全然」 all-or-nothing 的機械運作原理,只有報時按鈕壓到底才會啟動報時,這項發明問世至今超過 300年,依舊為現代問錶所採用。


點擊此縮圖可觀看放大原圖

AP Minute Repeater Split-seconds Chronograph Circa 1890


寶璣大師 Abraham-Louis Breguet 的貢獻

而發明陀飛輪的天才鐘錶大師寶璣 (Abraham-Louis Breguet) 也接受了問錶發展的挑戰,並做出偉大的貢獻。當德國哲學家兼作家 Georg Christoph Lichtenberg 在兩百年前於哥廷根 Göttingen) 寫下「至高的主宰者允諾世界的整體歷史重複發生,就好比時鐘重複報時一樣。」這句名言的時候,寶璣大師也正在巴黎努力製造更小巧、技術層面、更精緻的問錶,他立意要為問錶增添旋律優美的聲調,因為他堅持時間要不是精準動聽,便寧可鴉雀無聲,而寶璣也的確在1783年因此發明了音簧 Gong Springs 取代了自鳴鐘和自鳴懷錶媞D用的小鐘碗和小金槌,創作出能發出優雅樂聲的問錶,備受世人的推崇。

不會永遠被遺忘的問錶技藝


點擊此縮圖可觀看放大原圖

AP Minute Repeater Split-seconds Chronograph Circa 1885


時序進入 19 世紀,愛迪生發明了燈泡,全世界即使在夜晚也大放光亮之後,無論是 Daniel Quare、Abraham-Louis Breguet、或是百達翡麗的問錶,很快被秉持實用主義的現代人視為不合時宜的產物。在當時,響聲報時裝置都成了有錢人家的腕錶。而 1970 年代的石英和電子錶革命之後,一方小小積體電路就能輕易讓手錶準時以樂聲報時,對手錶抱持完全實用主義態度的人,一只花俏的電子錶就具有「問錶」的性能,也難怪錶界在問錶發展與製造的進展上幾近停滯了數十年。一直要到其後的機械錶復興時期,繁複精巧的機械工藝取代冰冷沒有生命力的電路板、重拾消費者與收藏家的熱誠,這樣的趨勢才因而逆轉。外表設計質樸純雅,外觀看來與一般腕錶無異的問錶 (錶殼邊緣的按鍵或是撥柄並非一般對手錶沒興趣的人會注意到的),由於錶面下所暗藏的無數精細零件,幾乎可說是富涵集合了由古至今一切製錶概念和技術的精華,有能力製作一只精良的問錶變成展示一家錶廠的製錶技藝無與倫比的最佳指標,這就是為何今日這些精緻的問錶計時至今仍是頂尖錶廠必爭之地,也是這世上所有製錶大師會窮其一生努力追求製造技術的原因了。

點擊此縮圖可觀看放大原圖



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